Shipping types air sea and land freight and their respective features

Shipping types air sea and land freight and their respective features

Shipping types air sea and land freight and their respective features

The choice between means of shipping goods may be confusing and sometimes difficult, as each of them has characteristics, features and challenges. The decision to choose a means of freight depends on many details that we will highlight in this article, in addition to the most prominent and important information that illustrates the advantages of land, sea and air freight. We will also explain what are the appropriate criteria for choosing the appropriate means of freight.

Land Freight

Land freight through trains or trucks is one of the oldest and most flexible types of freight, and it is of course less expensive, whether it is medium trucks with a load of 20 tons or trailers with a load of more than 50 tons, and land freight is ideal for short and medium distances, and importers prefer the means of land transportation when the shipments are heavy. The importance of land freight also lies in assisting the completion of freight operations and distributing them to separate areas in the state or city.

As for Turkey, its location, its proximity to the Middle East and Europe, and its sharing of land borders with several countries made land freight easy for traders in neighbouring countries. Turkey currently has over-land transport links with Bulgaria, Greece and many subsequent European countries, as well as transport lines to Iraq, Jordan and Iran. In addition, to transport lines with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia and Georgia.

The challenges of land freight first lie in the low level of safety compared to other means of freights, as the level of traffic accidents is relatively high due to the rough and narrow roads and the exposure of human in this field to influential pressure factors, and land freight is slow and therefore the period of its arrival depends on the distance between Turkey and the receiving area. And because road transport has a negative impact on the environment, some countries impose strict restrictions, which makes it an option out of the equation for some destinations.


Sea Freight 

Shipping accounts for 90% of the world's cargo operations, this method is the most common and used in long distances and huge loads compared to air and land freight. Safety and high capacity are among the most important advantages of shipping different goods and products.

Despite the advantages of sea freight, there are some challenges, the most important of which are the high price and the length of time for shipment compared to air freight. Problems have recently emerged in the field of maritime transport resulting from political and economic factors between exporting countries and importing ports.

Turkey has high maritime shipping capabilities thanks to its many giant ports that accommodate hundreds of ships as well as Turkey's proximity to the Black Sea, Aegean Sea, Marmara Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, its territorial connectivity with Asian and European States, and its proximity to North Africa.


Air freight

Air shipping usually enters competition when time is of the essence for the importer as the shipping period can be up to a maximum of 10 days due to logistics, inspection and customs. This means is the most suitable for transporting perishable goods, mainly medical and therapeutic products in addition to enjoying a high degree of safety.

The high cost is one of the most prominent disadvantages of air freight, as it is the highest among other means, so it is adopted in small and medium shipments, and it is necessary to take into account the crowding of airports and the disturbances that the transportation process may be exposed to due to lack of labor, as happened in the summer of 2022 from Overcrowding at European airports.

In recent years, Turkey has increased the number of its airports, which has accelerated the arrival and transport of goods, made the process less complicated, doubled the carrying capacity of air freight, and provided facilities for trucks to reach the nearest receiving point, according to the importing country. 


Criteria for selecting the appropriate freight method

Choosing the right shipping method depends on speed, security and cost standards and mainly on the type of goods, for example for foodstuffs, land and sea freight can be adopted, especially with refrigerated containers, whether by vessels or trucks and heavy and bulky cargo will naturally be transported by sea under safety standards, If the time factor is essential and critical, air transport is the ideal option, despite its high cost.